which statement describes earthquakes?

State the functions of the skeletal system, including the number and the major bones in the human skeleton. They arrive before P waves. - This scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake based on the size of seismic waves. Each seismic station in the network measures the movement of the ground at that site. Earths major earthquakes occur mainly in belts coinciding with the margins of tectonic plates. The slip of one block of rock over another in an earthquake releases energy that makes the ground vibrate. a) the Parkfield Earthquake study (4 points), b) what was learned about earthquake prediction from the 2004 Parkfield earthquake (3 points), c) the difference between earthquake prediction and earthquake forecasting (3 points), d) the key pieces of information that are part of an earthquake forecast. How is the magnitude of an earthquake determined? A white Ford F-150 truck hit a large metal column . Richter scale (ML), quantitative measure of an earthquake 's magnitude (size), devised in 1935 by American seismologists Charles F. Richter and Beno Gutenberg. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Which statement describes one aspect of an earthquake's magnitude? Imagine that you do! A seismometer detects seismic waves below the instrument and records them as a series of zig-zags. All dates are listed according to UTC time. An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. One earthquake that shook the Salton Sea region - located south of Joshua Tree - registered as a 4.5 in magnitude on the Richter scale. Earthquakes can occur anywhere, but they occur mainly along fault lines (planar or curved fractures in the rocks of Earths crust), where compressional or tensional forces move rocks on opposite sides of a fracture. What is the geoid, and what does it have to do with earthquake depth? Gamma rays are a kind of electromagnetic wave. They move slower than S waves. Why do we use it and where does its shape come from? They range from very simple and inexpensive to sophisticated and pricey. Over the centuries, earthquakes have been responsible for millions of deaths and an incalculable amount of damage to property. How are earthquakes recorded? Author of. That vibration pushes the adjoining piece of ground and causes it to vibrate, and thus the energy travels out from the earthquake hypocenter in a wave Earthquake size, as measured by the Richter Scale is a well known, but not well understood, concept. Earthquake waves, more commonly known as seismic waves, are vibrations generated by an earthquake and propagated within Earth or along its surface. Which statement describes earthquakes? Professor Emeritus of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley. Object O stands on the central axis of a spherical mirror. How do they work? Although the Earth looks like a pretty solid place from the surface, its actually extremely active just below the surface. Describe a) the Parkfield Earthquake study (4 points) b) what Access to over 100 million course-specific study resources, 24/7 help from Expert Tutors on 140+ subjects, Full access to over 1 million Textbook Solutions, m ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. This was a large urn on the outside of which were eight dragon heads facing the eight principal directions of the compass. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. It is measured by the Mercalli scale. P waves, meaning primary waves, travel fastest and thus arrive first at seismic stations. - It measures only small earthquakes. - They use one reading to determine the location of an epicenter. vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Seismology, which involves the scientific study of all aspects of earthquakes, has yielded answers to such long-standing questions as why and how earthquakes occur. a) back, and forth parallel to the direction of wave travel b) back and forth at right angles to the, direction of wave travel c) in rolling circular motion d) in a rolling elliptical motion, An earthquake's Richter magnitude is based on the a) amount o0f energy released, during an earthquake b) amount of ground movement caused by seismic waves c), distance between the earthquake and the seismograph station d) observed effects on, Analysis of fault mechanisms indicates __________ at divergent boundaries and, __________ at transform boundaries a) compression;tension b) shear;compression c), What type of information do seismographs give about an earthquake a) the location b), What is the minimum number is seismic detectors needed to determine fault, As the distance to an earthquake increases, a) the elapsed time before the P waves, arrive decreases b) the time between the arrival of the P and S waves increases c) the, amount of ground shaking increases d) the time between the arrival of the P and S, Following a main shock of magnitude 6 one could expect aftershocks as strong as a) 5, A fault line long-term slip rate of 5 cm/year and slips 2.5 m when it moves. Nam lacinia pulvinar tortor nec facilisis. Magnitude is a measure of the amplitude (height) of the seismic waves an earthquakes source produces as recorded by seismographs. Official websites use .gov (See the table of major earthquakes.). In its range of validity, each is equivalent to the Richter magnitude. Both arrive after P waves. (c) The coefficient of performance of an irreversible heat pump cycle is always less than the coefficient of performance of a reversible heat pump cycle when both exchange energy by heat transfer with the same two reservoirs. They are caused by reduced stress in rocks. Scientists have measured quakes on Earth's Moon, and see evidence for seismic activity on Mars, Venus and several moons of Jupiter, too! The links here are to various sources with information on how to build a seismometer. It develops in the lithosphere. They are installed in the ground throughout the world and operated as part of a seismographic network. Earthquakes are caused by shifts in the outer layers of Eartha region called the lithosphere. When an earthquake occurs, one of the first questions is "where was it?" So the intensity of an earthquake will vary depending on where you are. The seismic activity is by no means uniform throughout the belt, and there are a number of branches at various points. Which statement about earthquakes is accurate? They begin at the epicenter. ncrease in the moon jelly population. d. Its density varies randomly with depth. The Mercalli Scale is based on observable earthquake damage. The lithosphere isnt a continuous piece that wraps around the whole Earth like an eggshell. If Earth were a perfect sphere, calculations of depth and distances would be easy because we know the equations for those calculations on a sphere. This scale rates an earthquake according to how much damage it causes. The California Highway Patrol in a statement said the crash happened about 4:30 a.m. on northbound Interstate 680 at the state Highway 242 split. Nam risus ante, dapibus a molestie consequat, ultrices ac magna. Earth's crust near magma melts, and the ground collapses. The duration of an earthquake is related to its magnitude but not in a perfectly strict sense. Which phrase describes a feature of an earthquake's epicenter? They begin at epicenter where their magnitude is highest. What was the duration of the earthquake? - The amount of damage increases as the magnitude decreases. The earliest seismoscope was invented by the Chinese philosopher Chang Heng in A.D. 132. Each increase of one unit also represents the release of about 31 times more energy than that represented by the previous whole number on the scale. Which statement about the Mercalli scale is true? Nam risus ante, da, Explore over 16 million step-by-step answers from our library, itur laoreet. The shaking is caused by movements in Earths outermost layer. They travel away from the focus of the earthquake in all directions. What statements describe earthquakes? When an earthquake occurs, one of the first questions is "where was it?" Although modern scientific practice has replaced the original Richter scale with other, more-accurate scales, the Richter scale is still often mentioned erroneously in news reports of earthquake severity as the catch-all name for the logarithmic scale upon which earthquakes are measured. following micronutrients: Earthquakes are the result of forces deep within the Earth's interior that continuously affect the surface of the Earth. Which statement describes the Mercalli scale? c. They are last to reach the epicenter. Seismologist Charles F. Richter created an earthquake magnitude scale using the logarithm of the largest seismic waves amplitude to base 10. The Richter scale of earthquake magnitude is listed in the table. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. It measures data used to find the difference between the arrival times of surface waves. Seismographs are instruments used to record the motion of the ground during an earthquake. In addition, seismic waves can be produced artificially by explosions. Answers. Environmental Studies Class 12 English Medium SEE ALL Advertisement Answer It uses a needle on graph paper to measure seismic wave activity. Below each dragon head was a toad with its mouth opened toward the dragon. The primary goal of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response is to ensure that the disaster response community has access to timely, accurate, and relevant geospatial products, imagery, and services during and after an emergency event. Which statement describes the formation of a covalent molecule? The Earth is made of four basic layers: a solid crust, a hot, nearly solid mantle, a liquid outer core and a solid inner core. Amount of damage can be used to determine intensity. How are earthquakes measured? It is determined by the arrival time of surface waves. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. United States Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Response, Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Monitoring earthquakes across the United States, NEIC; the National Earthquake Information Center. vitamin D, iron, and calcium. The energy can be released by elastic strain, gravity, chemical reactions, or even the motion of massive bodies. It is estimated that 80 percent of the energy presently released in earthquakes comes from those whose epicentres are in this belt. Magnitude calculations are dependent on the earthquake being local, as well as on the use of one particular type of seismograph. This has long been apparent from early catalogs of felt earthquakes and is even more readily discernible in modern seismicity maps, which show instrumentally determined epicentres. a Most earthquakes are not strong enough to be felt by humans. a) P waves b) S, waves c) surface waves d) all of the above, How do rock particles move during the passage of an S wave through the rock? Which statement describes seismic waves? a) P waves, b) S waves c) surface waves d) all of these waves arrive at the same time, Which of the following types of waves is a compressional sound wave? The slip of one block of rock over another in an earthquake releases energy that makes the ground vibrate. Observation and interpretation of precursory phenomena, Exploration of the Earths interior with seismic waves, 6 of the Worlds Deadliest Natural Disasters. fault What is the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale? rebecca hears the voice of an old woman who continuously criticizes everything rebecca does, but nobody else can hear the voice. An earthquake has one magnitude. - Earthquakes that cause maximum damage are the most common. The destructive effects of earthquakes are from landslides, tsunamis, fires, and fault rupture. Pellentesque dapibus efficit, View answer & additonal benefits from the subscription, Explore recently answered questions from the same subject, Explore documents and answered questions from similar courses. Unfortunately, Earth is not transparent and we can't just see or photograph the earthquake disturbance like meteorologists can photograph clouds. It contains two or more foods containing fiber. NASAs InSight mission took a seismometer to Mars to study seismic activity there, known as marsquakes. Scientists can accurately predict when an earthquake will occur, but not where.D. The result is called the moment magnitude. 3. Rock can bend and break. Credit: USGS. They travel the fastest through rocks. It is relatively easy to acquire the necessary materials and build your own seismometer. A: They live in permanent villages. answer choices The streams' directions have changed after the formation of a hot spot in Earth's crust. If Earth were a perfect sphere, calculations of depth and distances would be easy because we know the equations for those calculations on a sphere. These new discoveries will help us understand more about how planets like Marsand our home, Earthcame to be. What does it mean that the earthquake occurred at a depth of 0 km? b. Seismometers, seismographs, seismograms - what's the difference? wave strength Most quakes are unnoticeable by people on Earth's surface. D: Wild fruits berries and nuts are part of their, a. They result from movement on Earth's surface. The release of enormous energy leads to the development of earthquakes. rocks breaking generally not felt by people, though recorded on local instruments, serious damage over large areas; loss of life, severe destruction and loss of life over large areas. Draw or describe your meal in the space below: What are some problems of this way of life? and fat. Earth's crust suddenly slips along a fault. (b) All reversible refrigeration cycles operating between the same two reservoirs have the same coefficient of performance. The _____ magnitude scale is useful for measuring the strength of earthquakes of all sizes and at all distances from a seismograph. It begins about 5 kilometers below Earth's surface. re Credit: NASA-JPL/Caltech. Scientists can . Earth's resources: Effects of Human Activity, Advanced Mechanics of Materials and Applied Elasticity. This photograph shows the San Andreas Fault, a 750-mile-long fault in California. Which statement describes S waves? When this energy is released suddenly, for example by shearing movements along faults in the crust of the Earth, an 4. Q: QUESTION 6 For the remaining questions, refer to the case study for additional . Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. At this early hour, people were beginning to get ready for the day's w, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, VA 20192, Earthquake Magnitude, Energy Release, and Shaking Intensity. It is located at the point where circles intersect on a map. Select all that apply. Using the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law of thermodynamics, demonstrate the following corollaries: (a) The coefficient of performance of an irreversible refrigeration cycle is always less than the coefficient of performance of a reversible refrigeration cycle when both exchange energy by heat transfer with the same two reservoirs. These phenomena are primarily responsible for deaths and injuries. Currently, we use the WGS84 version (World Geodetic System of 1984). - They often compare information from all over the world. Each increase of one unit on the scale represents a 10-fold increase in the magnitude of an earthquake. causing earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic, Which of these are financial goals? Richters scale was originally for measuring the magnitude of earthquakes from magnitudes 3 to 7, limiting its usefulness. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. A lock () or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website. How do seismologists locate an earthquake? What is a Geoid? There also are striking connected belts of seismic activity, mainly along oceanic ridgesincluding those in the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the western Indian Oceanand along the rift valleys of East Africa. First of all, the depth of an A seismometer is the internal part of the seismograph, which may be a pendulum or a mass mounted on a spring; however, it is often used synonymously with "seismograph". An official website of the United States government. Claim 1: A change to the zooplankton population caused births to i - It cannot account for fault movement during an earthquake. 36 Questions from Britannicas Most Popular Science Quizzes, https://www.britannica.com/science/earthquake-geology. Earthquakes are caused by shifts in the outer layers of Eartha region called the lithosphere. It is denser than continental crust and. Which phrase describes a feature of an earthquake's epicenter? Earth's crust is fractured into tectonic plates that have been moving very slowly over the Earth's surface for millions of years. In California, the collapse of buildings, roads and infrastructure produced eight of the ten costliest earthquakes in the last one hundred years. Which statement describes the location of an earthquake's epicenter? Hence, the correct options are they release energy, they are caused by forces, and they can lead to massive damage. How Do Scientists Predict Tsunamis After Earthquakes? The slip of one block of rock over another in an earthquake releases energy that makes the ground vibrate. They shake the ground. What is the difference between earthquake magnitude and earthquake intensity? b. Pellentes, iscing elit. The Richter scale was originally devised to measure the magnitude of earthquakes of moderate size (that is, magnitude 3 to magnitude 7) by assigning a number that would allow the size of one earthquake to be compared with another. Correct Answers-) A.) - It increases in magnitude as amount of damage increases. You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser. They travel through liquids. This includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act, Endangered Species Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and other applicable laws and regulations; as well as conformance with applicable Hanford Site NEPA Environmental Assessments (EAs) or Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), such as the "Hanford Site Comprehensive Land It creates stress in rock. increasing the spread of infectious diseases. Because of the limitations of all three magnitude scales (ML, Mb, and Ms), a new more uniformly applicable extension of the magnitude scale, known as moment magnitude, or Mw, was developed. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up Earths crust. Present-day seismographs, however, may be calibrated to compute Richter magnitudes, and modern methods for measuring earthquake magnitude have been developed to produce results that remain consistent with those measured using the Richter scale. Donec aliquet. Using recently developed seafloor geodetic instrumentation, Brooks et al. - This scale measures seismic waves based on their size. Which is used to find the epicenter of an earthquake? Secure .gov websites use HTTPS About 50,000 earthquakes large enough to be noticed without the aid of instruments occur annually over the entire Earth. Since modern seismographs can detect seismic waves even smaller than those originally chosen for zero magnitude, it is possible to measure earthquakes having negative magnitudes on the Richter scale. They often compare information from all over the world. Seismic waves are produced when some form of energy stored in Earth's crust is suddenly released, usually when masses of rock straining against one another suddenly fracture and "slip." You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser. When rocks break, they cause _____ that move throughout, producing typhoons, which is a powerful system. They travel faster than P waves. Plates form on the lithosphere. An earthquake is a sudden shaking of Earth's surface caused by the movement of rocks deep underneath. How do they have This is a list of earthquakes in 2023. In less than a minute, seismic waves from this earthquake had traveled to Mexico City. Which statement describes surface waves? A- mountains/C.) Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Very great earthquakes occur on average about once per year. place around the center of an earthquake Earthquakes are recorded by a seismographic network. Secure .gov websites use HTTPS Which factor does the moment magnitude scale estimate? What is a Geoid? Which is one step that geologists use to find the epicenter of an earthquake? - It estimates the total energy released from an earthquake. c. It decreases in density with depth. Earth's crust switches places in a periodic manner. A slip at shallow depth is the dominant driver of tsunami. Both travel through liquids. Only earthquakes of magnitude 6 or above are included, unless they result in significant damage and/or casualties. What unresolved conflict was made worse by adding more territory to the United States in the early to mid-1800s answer choices It creates stress in rock. c About 100 earthquakes per year are 57,188 results, page 3 What region of the world has the most earthquakes? An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. The earthquakes magnitude is determined using the logarithm of the amplitude (height) of the largest seismic wave calibrated to a scale by a seismograph. They are produced by P and S waves. Since the moment magnitude scale was not limited by Richters process, it avoided the saturation problem and thus was used to determine the magnitudes of the largest earthquakes. This magnitude scale was referred to as ML, with For earthquakes that occurred between about 1890 (when modern seismographs came into use) and 1935 when Charles Richter developed the magnitude scale, people went back to the old records and compared the seismograms from those days with similar records for later earthquakes. They start as surface waves. The moment can be estimated from seismograms (and also from geodetic measurements). faults that remain stationary. Thousands of quakes occur every day but are too weak to be felt. To accomplish this goal, products and services provided by the National Geospatial Program (NGP) and Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program serve as a geos, During the past 35 years, scientists have developed a vast network of seismometers that record earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear explosions throughout the world. As the level rises toward the larger numbers, the amount of damage increases considerably. Energy is absorbed. This happens because the relation between the seismic measurements and the magnitude is complex and different procedures will often give slightly different magnitudes for the same earthquake. In order for an earthquake to occur, two blocks of crust must slip past one another, and it is impossible for this to happen at or above the surface of the earth. Magnitude scales, like themoment magnitude, measure the size of the earthquake at its source. On Earth, we know that different materials vibrate in different ways. The scale abandoned the use of peak wave amplitudes in its calculations, focusing instead on calculating an earthquakes seismic moment (M0)that is, the displacement of the fault across its entire surface multiplied by the force used to move the fault. The S, or secondary, waves arrive after the P waves. They travel through liquids. The risks that earthquakes pose to society, including death, injury, and economic loss, can be greatly reduced by (1) better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen, and (2) providing critical and timely information to improv, The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy within some limited region of the rocks of the Earth. They move in one direction. They draw squares on maps for measurements. Which strategy do geologists use to locate the center of an earthquake? They move side to side. a) Germans were destined to . Credit: Wikimedia Commons user Z22, CC BY-SA 3.0. It is uniform in density. pastor, interpersonal relationship | 191 views, 4 likes, 4 loves, 37 comments, 1 shares, Facebook Watch Videos from Brandywine Valley Church: Pastor Matthew McNutt shares "The Antidote to Fear" from. It is used to determine damage caused by earthquakes.

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